Georgian London
Addresses and Locations


Squares

"If you wish to have a just notion of the magnitude of this city, you must not be satisfied with seeing its great streets and squares, but must survey the innumerable little lanes and courts."--Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)


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Bedford Square

Name Trade Number Description Year
Joseph May Merchant 4, Bedford-square, Bloomsbury 
Recordon & Dupont Watchmakers 3, Bedford-street Bedford-square  
Joseph Warner, junior Merchant 22, Gower-street 
R. Shedden, Esq. Merchant 35, Gower-street 
John Pasley Merchant 66, Gower-street 
Francis-Henry Tyler Merchant 67, Gower-street 
Crawford & Loraine Timber Merchants Store street  

Berkeley Square

Berkeley Square

The Square was laid out in 1730's. It was named for Lord Berkeley of Stratton, a Royalist commander in the Civil War.The north end of the Square was left open to preserve the view from Berkeley House (later Devonshire House). Thirty some large Maples were planted in the central garden in 1789. The popular Gunter's Tea Shop located at 7 & 8 must have generated traffic on warm afternoons.

Berkeley Square Addresses

Bloomsbury Square

Upon its construction this square was called Southhampton Square, after the Earl who built it in 1665. In 1700 the Duke of Bedford took Southhampton house on the North side of the Square. Bedford developed the grounds in 1800. Repton laid out the gardens and James Burton built the homes. There are many book sellers and cabinet makers to the Southeast part of the square. No. 45 was the family home to the Earl's of Chesterfield. Issac D'Israeli lived at No. 6 from 1817-1829.

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Bridgewater Square

After a fire that destroyed the Earl of Bridgewater's home in 1688 Sir Christopher Wren and George Jackson purchased the land and developed this small square on the East side of Aldersgate. It was surrounded by a tree hedge.

Name Trade Number Description Year
James Upjohn Watchmaker 1 
John Jackson Watchmaker 2 
B. Bayley & Son Watchmakers 3 
John Brooks Clock & Watchmaker 4 
William Turner & Sons Refiners & Smelters 6  

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Cavendish Square

Cavendish Square

Was laid out by John Prince for the 2nd Earl of Oxford. It was the first development on his estate and was named for the Earl's wife Henrietta Cavendish-Hollace. Construction began in 1717, but was held up by the South Sea Bubble. Oxford street was built to stimulate the leasing of lots and construction of houses.

Cavendish Square Addresses

Charterhouse Square

Constructed between 1700-1775 consists primarily of Georgian brick houses. This Square is located near Smithfield. Thackery boarded there as a schoolboy.

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NameTrade AddressPersonal AssociationsOther inhabitantsYear
John Campbell, Esq. Merchant 4    
John-William Anderson, Esq.  5 Alderman, Agent & Commissary for the City of Dantzig  
George Bague Merchant 28   
John-William Anderson, Esq. & Co.Merchants 33    
Samuel Drewe Merchant 33    
Thomas Roberts, senior Broker 37   
Thomas Roberts, junior Broker 39   
Rutland House         
      Venetian Ambassadors    
Charter House         
Devonshire Square

Devonshire Square

Built upon grounds of Devonshire House. It is in Bishopsgate near Liverpool St. Nicholas Barbon developed the land in 1675. Between 1678-1708 the Square and a new Quaker meeting house were built.

Devonshire Square Addresses


Finsbury

A rectangular Square with City Road on the East side. It was an attempt to create a West End type atmosphere in the City. George Dance the younger designed the Square, and it was constructed 1777-1792. From 1778-1798 James Lackington the bookseller had a shop in the southeast corner of the Square called "TheTemple of the Muses." It had 140 feet of frontage and in the center of the shop was a huge circular counter around which it was said a coach and six could have been driven. There was a flagpole from which a flag was flown when the owner was in residence. The shop was considered a London sight.

Finsbury Square Addresses

Gough Square

The Square, which lies North of Fleet St, was built on land owned by Sir Richard Gough, a wool merchant who was knighted after his trade in India prospered. Dr Johnson lived at No. 17 for 10 years until 1759. Hugh Kelly, the dramatist and author also lived there until 1777.

Golden Square

Built 1670-1700 on land once known as Gelding's Close. At first it was extremely fashionable. Barbara Villiers the Duchess of Cleveland lived there 1705-07, James Bridges, 1st Duke of Chandos lived there 1700-10, Henry St John Viscount Bollingbrook was in residence 1702-14. By 1720 the Square was graveled and entirely inhabited by gentry. After 1750, the aristocrats moved on to Mayfair. Then foreigners took over the residences for homes and embassies.

Golden Square Addresses

Grosvenor Square

Grosvenor Square

Built between 1725-1731 at the center of the Grosvenor estate. It is the 2nd largest Square in London. The average cost of homes originally built there was the amazing sum of 7,500 pounds--at a time when a time when a farm laborer received less than 40 pence, there are 240 pence per pound, per day during the high demand harvest season. Naturally the majority of the original residents were titled. The area came to be called Little America because John Quincy Adams lived there while he was the American ambassador to Britian.

Grosvenor Square Addresses

Hanover Square

Hanover Square

Bounded by Oxford St. on the north, Regent St. on the east, on South and West by the backs of the houses on Conduit and New Bond Streets. The square was located at the center of Millfield Close Estate. Development began after the accession of George I in 1714. The Whig magnate Lt. General the Earl of Scarborough began this first of the great Mayfair Squares. The Church of St. George, built on St George St., was immediately fashionable. Retired Generals and other persons of distinction inhabited the homes in the square. Learned societies and clubs moved in as it became less fashionable. Robert Adam remodeled No. 13 Roxburghe House, in 1776, for the 3rd Duke of Roxburghe who was famous for his book collection. The Lascelles family later owned the house, so it became known as Harewood House.

Hanover Square Addresses

Leicester Square

Leicester Square

Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, acquired the land on which this square was built in the 1670's. Leicecter House on the North side was completed in 1635. Houses were modeled on those in Pall Mall. Earls of Ailesburry, Sunderland, Rockingham, Scarsdale, Westmorland, and Deloraine lived there. In 1782 Gedge opened a Linen Drapers shop with one of the first large shopfront windows. Hogarth lived at No. 30 where he drew Rake's Progress. Joshua Reynolds lived in No. 47 from 1760-1792. Dr. Johnson and Fanny Burney were frequent visitors there. The area became less fashionable by 1800 when craftsmen moved in.

Leicester Square Addresses

Lincoln Inns Fields

The largest Square in London developed over two common fields. Pursefield and Cupsfield were former playfields for students. After several attempts to build in the area in 1630 William Newton was finally granted the right to build on the sight when he assured the crown he could increase the annual income from the land to more than the sum of 5pounds 6s 8d it collected in rents at that time. By 1641, Newton had built 32 houses around the Square. While the area was fashionable, it was plagued by fights and robberies. Residents included: Edward Montagu the 1st Earl of Sandwich, 2nd and 3rd Lords Coventry, Thomas Pelham-Holles Duke of Newcastle, Robert Sidney 2nd Earl of Licester, Robert Bertie 1st Earl of Lindsey at no. 59-60 built in 1640 by Inigo Jones, the Duchess of Portsmouth, Willaim Pitt's chambers in 1778, and Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke of St. Albans who was the son of Nell Gwen and Charles II's.

Lincolns Inn Fields Addresses

Manchester Square

A small Square laid out 1776-1788 named for the Duke of Manchester who was the first owner of Hertford House.

Montagu Square

Brick Houses designed by David Parkinson and built by David Porter in 1811. A twin of Bryanston Square.

Portman Square

Portman Square

Built 1674-1684 on the land of Henry William Portman. Montagu House at the northwest corner was built by James Stuart for Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu. She used to give a roast beef and plum pudding dinner for chimney-sweeps and their apprentices on Mayday. One of them, David Porter, grew up to be a builder and named Montagu square in her honor. No. 20 Home House was built by Robert Adam 1773-7.

Portman Square

NameAddressPersonal AssociationsOther inhabitantsStyleYear
 20     Adam 1773-1777

At Portman Square

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NameAddressPersonal AssociationsOther inhabitantsStyleYear
Name Number Trade Description Year
John Sawbridge Esquare Cavendish street Alderman  
Peter Fallon 9 Edward street Hatter  
William Hawkins 10 Edward street Oilman & Salter  
William Jones 25 Edward street Wax chandler & Grocer  
Dawson & Co. 29 Edward street Linen drapers  

King's Square

Soho

This Square was built in 1681 and named for Charles II. His statue was erected at its center. The Earl of St. Albans leased the land to a brewer who passed it on to Richard Frith, a brick layer. Monmouth House is on the South side. Fauconberg House and Carlisle Hose were on the East side, Viscount Preston also lived there. Sometime after 1739 it became Soho Square. The word Soho originates from a hunting cry; the land was formerly a hunting ground. No. 32 was the residence of botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who gave breakfasts at which he would show his collections from his voyages with Captain Cook. By the 1770's many ambassadors lived in this square.

SoHo Square Addresses

Panton Square

Queen Square

Queen Square

Built 1708-1720 and named after Queen Anne. Dr. Charles Burney and Fanny lived there 1771-2. Hampstead and Highgate could be seen through the open North side at that time. The Burney's entertained Cook here when he returned to London from his 2nd voyage. The Garden has a statue of Queen Charlotte that was placed there in 1775. Dr Willis lived there. Early in his illness King George III stayed with Dr. Willis. The square was a fashionable area until 1800.

Queen square, Bloomsbury

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NameNumberTradeDescriptionYear
John Henry Warre   Merchant  
William Moffatt 32 Merchant  
M. Fernandes 23 New Ormond street Broker  

Red Lion Square

Red Lion Square

Located South of Theobald Road and named after the inn at Holburn this Square was laid out in 1684 by Nicholas Barbon on a 17 acre paddock. It was the London residence of the famous Mr. Harrison while he was constructing his clock.



Redlion Square, Holburn

Name Number Trade DescriptionYear
William Webb 4 Merchant 
George Wye & Co. 5 Merchants or Tom's Coffee house
Walford & Good 28 Surgeons 
Rob. Grant 31 Merchant 
J. Scott 40 Gloucester street Clock & Watchmaker 
Lewis & Morgan 33 & 34 Theobald's row Attorny's 

Russell Square

Built on grounds of Bedford House. Repton laid it out in 1800. James Burton built several homes there. It was immediately favored by Lawyers. Thomas Lawrence had a studio at 67 from 1805-1830. He painted portraits of many of the prominent allies after Waterloo.

St. James Square

St. James Square

Development began in 1675 and was carried out by Jermyn, the Earl of St. Albans, and Clarges. The Square is bordered by St James St, Haymarket, King Charles II St, and Jermyn St.. Sir John Denham, the surveyor General probably designed the brick homes with stone dressings. It housed several foreign Embassies. Number 21 housed Arrabella Churchill and Catharine Sedley in turn when they were James II's mistresses. Between 1791-95 No. 21 was rebuilt by the 5th Duke of Leeds. In 1829 the Bishops of Winchester took the house, 46 years later it was sold and a distillery was built on the lot.

Edmund Boehm, a rich merchant, was giving a ball at No. 16 one evening in 1815. The Boehms were no doubt delighted to have the Prince Regent as a guest. Major Henry Percy arrived at the door in a uniform still bloody from the Battle of Waterloo. When brought before the Prince Regent he laid the French Eagles at the Prince's Feet announcing the Victory of Waterloo. Mrs. Boehm was upset at the interruption of her party, but the Prince, who loved public spectacle, was delighted. After asking the ladies to leave the room, he had Lord Liverpool read the dispatch aloud. The Regent promoted the messenger Percy to Colonel on the spot.
In 1820 Queen Caroline rented no. 17 while she was testifying at parliament.

St. James Square Addresses

Trafalgar

This square was laid out between 1829 to 1841 to commemorate Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. The square gave a name to the Trafalgar balcony because many homes in this area had iron balconies. The square is dominated by a large column surrounded by bronze lions, and topped with a 17 foot high statue of Nelson. The Church of St. Martin's in the Fields and the National Gallery are located in this square.

Wellclose

Laid out at the end of the 17th century. It was the home to many sea captains.

• from 1794 Kent's directory


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This site last updated March 2003 by webmaster