One of the world's oldest breeds, developed in Turkmenistan, a part of the former USSR. Predominantly honey-gold in color, these lean, greyhound-like saddle horses are known for endurance, and especially the ability to withstand extremes of drought, heat and cold.
Ancient breed from Portugal and Spain, where all exportation of breeding stock was once prohibited. Classic horse of the caballeros and Conquistadores, Andalusions have provided foundation bloodstock for many other breeds, including the Lippizanners.
An ancient breed indigenous to the Arabian peninsula, which served as the foundation for English Thoroughbreds. Arabians are small, light, refined, agile, intelligent, and known for their endurance. They are marked by dish faces, wide eyes, flaring nostrils and long expressive manes and tails.
A warmblood breed developed in Belgium as an ideal riding and light driving horse for military and performance purposes, especially competitive events such as eventing, show jumping and dressage. Increasingly, the breed has been exported to the U.S. in the past twenty years.
An English breed indigenous to the county of Yorkshire, used primarily as a coach horse, but also for agriculture and as a cross for hunting mounts. Always of a bay color, these typically 16.2 hand animals are required to have clean legs and very sound hard blue feet.
Cleveland Bay Website
The modern Dutch warmblood was bred by mixing the two "native" Dutch breeds- the Gelderlander and the Groningen.
The Gelderlander, which evolved on the light sandy soils of central Holland was a stylish horse of medium stature, frequently chestnut with flashy white markings. The Groningen evolved on the heavy clay soils of northern Holland into a larger and heavier horse, frequently black.
In the heyday of coaching in the 19th century, horses were imported to Europe from England - the Norfolk Trotter, the Yorkshire Coach, the Cleveland Bay, the Hackney - to be crossed on the native mares, becoming the ancestors of the modern Dutch Warmblood sport horses.
A small horse (12 to 13:2 hands) said to have originated in Galicia in northwestern Spain and brought to North America by Spanish explorers. Galicenos are tough and courageous but easy to handle. While most colors are found, pintos and albinos cannot be registered.Galiceno Horse Breeders Association, Box 219, Godley, TX 76044-0219
Best known German warmblood, Hanoverians were developed by the British " Hanoverian" Kings, especially by the first, George I. In the early 18th century, he bred German "war horse" mares from his native Hanover to the Thoroughbred stallions then in England. They are calm level-headed horses with natural balance, impulsion and elegant, elastic movements characterized by a floating trot, a round rhythmic canter, and a ground-covering walk. Originally an all-purpose breed, today's Hanoverian is an exceptional dressage and show jumping horse.
American Hanoverian Society
A heavier German breed than the Hanoverian, the Holstein has a history dating back to the 14th century when it was a weight-carrying war horse. Originally the horse was valued for his strength, steadiness and reliability, and by the military for his courage and agility. Today, the Holsteiner has been crossed with the English Thoroughbred so add elegance and jumping ability but it is still a heavily muscled saddle horse, used extensively as a carriage horse and as a heavy show jumper.
American Holsteiner Horse Association,
Founded around 1580 by Archduke Charles of Austria, who developed an exceptionally high-quality parade horse at his stud farm at Lipizza. Known for their grace, Lippizaners can be of any color. Only grey stallions are used at the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.
United States Lipizzan Registry,
Lipizzan Association of North America,
One of the oldest and more distinctive European breeds, the hardy Fjord was developed in western Norway. The breed's usual color is cream or dun, with a dark dorsal stripe. They are somewhat short, with a thick neck and shoulders, deep, wide barrel and a broad chest.
The heaviest of the German warmblood, the Oldenburg often has many characteristics of the draft breeds: flat hooves, heavy head and neck. It lacks the endurance of some other warmbloods, but makes a good coach horse, especially when crossed on Thoroughbreds.
The breed, found in East Friesland as well as the northern German kingdom of Oldenburg , can be traced back to Herzog Anton Gunther von Oldenburg in the 16th Century, with bloodlines based on the Friesian mares and selected Spanish and Italian stallions. Originally developed as a good strong carriage horse, the breed now contains Spanish, Neopolitan and Barb blood, along with Thoroughbred and Hannoverian to improve its use as a sport horse. The early Oldenburg horses were well-known for consistency in conformation, great power, and their magnificent coal black color. They were also famed for their kind character and extreme willingness to work-under saddle, in front of a carriage or in the fields.
A French breed developed by crossing Thoroughbreds on sturdy native horses. The ideal is a big horse with good movement, capable of covering ground, with a calm temperament and a big-boned Thoroughbred-type conformation. The breed is superior as a sport horse.
The Spanish-Norman breed is a blending of the genes of the Andalusian of Spain and the Percheron of France to recreate the phenotype of the medieval knight's charger. Versatile sport horses, they have natural style and beauty, combined with size , strength and bone.
Swedish warmbloods, originally developed and refined for use by the cavalry, have been carefully selected and bred for sports for the past 60 years. Ideally from 16 to 17 hands tall, the breed, while showing versatility in many sports, is exceptionally fine at dressage.
Long selected only on the basis of soundness, speed and stamina, and
one of the first to close its stud book, the Thoroughbred is the world's
preeminent race horse. Originated in England around 1700, the breed has
both tall distance runners and short-coupled sprinters. The Arabian served
as the foundation for English Thoroughbreds.
The Jockey Club,
Performance Horse Registry,
An European warmblood of East Prussian origin, the Trakhener traces it lineage to a world-famous farm Trakehnen in 1732. The horse started as a stocky, strong native animal which needed size and refinement. The really important and decisive development of the breed, therefore, occurred in the early 18th Century when top quality English Thoroughbred and Arabian blood began to be introduced in small quantities. The goal of the breeding programs then became directed toward breeding a better endurance horse which would prove himself not only highly efficient as a riding horse during wartimes, but also as a working horse on East Prussian farms during times of peace. The object, ultimately, was to add the size, nerve, spirit and endurance of the Thoroughbred to the bulk, stability and nobility of the native breed. The Traekner is world renowned for its temperament. It is an alert and intelligent animal, yet accepting and anxious to please. It's springy floating trot is exceptional, as is its endurance. It has been a superb performance horse.
A German warmblood similar in physique to the Hanoverian, the Westfalen (Westphalian) is an outstanding general-purpose horse, one that has excelled at driving and riding both for pleasure and for competition. Always a solid color, the Westfalen usually stands 16.1 hands.
With the introduction of macadamised roads, the Cleveland Bay was considered not fast enough, and as a result the Yorkshire Coach Horse came into being. In 1887 a Yorkshire Coach Horse Stud Book was introduced, which contained horses that were three-quarters Cleveland Bay and one-quarter Thoroughbred. The Stud Book was closed in 1936 with the decline of the coaching era. Since the foundation breeds of the Yorkshire Coach Horse still exist, it would be possible to re-start this breed.
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